Ancient Polities are polities that existed in the far past. This only includes polities that existed more than 1000 years ago.
Major polities are those polities that had a noticeable imapct on the area where they existed or the world.
Kaligar was an empire created by the minotaur warlord Jarc-Latil. It is considered the singular greatest military force to have ever existed, at least in comparison to its contemporaries. It is the largest empire to have ever existed, and it still exists in name, though it is completely different, thus making it both an ancient and a modern polity.
The Serulial Empire was the first human polity. It also controlled a large amount of land and went toe-to-toe with Kaligar and won. They left a legacy that still affects the cultures of the many polities that exist around the Serulial Sea.
Minor polities are those that didn't have a lasting effect or legacy but still are known of.